Movements to outlaw racial segregation

The movements to outlaw racial segregation was at its height in the 1950’s, when persistent demonstrations turned public opinion to support the end to enforced desegregation in American society. However, even today segregation still exists in all aspects without approval or enforcement by law. Contemporary racial segregation in America is shaped by policies in regards to mortgage discrimination and “redlining” amongst other things. Redlining is the practice of denying or charging more for the cost of such everyday services as insurance, banking, and healthcare or even in supermarkets to certain communities on a racial basis.

This phrase was made popular in the late 1960’s by John McKnight, which described the practice of separating areas where banks would not open branches or do any business. This term was later applied to discrimination against particular groups based on race. This discrimination was practiced in areas populated by blacks. This meant that banks usually lent money to lower-income whites, but not to middle or upper-income blacks. Whites also created ghettos during the first half of the 20th century to isolate blacks. These programs have resulted in African Americans availing given opportunities and a very large number of blacks have earned their doctoral degrees from 1990 to 2000.

Also during the same period, African Americans have shown a 6 percent increase in associate degrees earned, 3 percent increase in bachelor’s degrees and a 6.7 gain in master’s degrees. However compared to the 45.6 percent white Americans who attended college after high school graduation only 39.7 percent black high school graduates took admission in colleges. In 2001, the normal per capita income for whites was $24,142/- compared to $15,269/- for blacks.  African-American women who had earned bachelor’s degrees earned $17,727/- less than whites with the same qualifications. Compared to the black population, only 7.8 whites lived in poverty Vis a Vis 22.7 percent of blacks.

During the 1960’s iconic black leaders such as Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, and Reverend Jesse Jackson were the leading figures in the civil rights movement. Martin Luther King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 for his efforts to end racial discrimination and segregation by civil disobedience and other peaceful means. Till his assignation in 1968, he worked tirelessly to end poverty and stop the Vietnam War. King was also posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977. King was a Baptist minister, who was the leader of the famous “Montgomery Bus Boycott” and he was also one of the founders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957.

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