Essay: History of HCI
Essay: History of HCI
Before the 1960s, the notion of “user interface” was not very clear. In those days, the main focus of the computing was on computations while the processes of input and display of the results of the computations were largely ignored. However, throughout the 1970s, the behavioral approach to understanding software design, programming and the use of interactive system developed rapidly. It addressed a wide range of question about the experiences of people with software and their performance when they interacted with computers. It included how system response affects productivity, how people specify and refine queries, as well how aids like mnemonic variable name, in-line program comments, and flowchart support programming.
This work inspired many industrial human factors groups to expand the scope of their responsibilities toward support for programming groups and usability of software. During the latter 1970s, several extensive compilations of research-based guidelines appeared and most of the computer manufacturers established usability laboratories. Throughout the 1970s, advances in the workstation computers and bit-mapped displays allowed concepts like graphical and gestural user interface and synchronous collaboration through direct pointing and shared windows to be consolidated. During these years, cognitive science emerged as a multidisciplinary project that encompassed linguistics, anthropology, philosophy and psychology and computer science. HCI became the original cognitive science domains. In the early 1980s, possibilities for media other than formatted text were quite limited. However, toward the end of the 1980s, this had changed dramatically, as hypertext took over. Around the same time, standard image formats were finding their use in visual effect by making it easier to create and share graphics and visualizations. Relatively good quality speech became available on the personal computers. During the 1990s these trends accelerated and the world wide web made hypertext a standard information design, while web pages and single click e-mail attachments made sharing of images as easy as sharing text, while good quality speech recognition became available on personal computers. Graphics and visualization techniques were central to the development of contemporary user interface paradigm. However, continuing advances in hardware speed and other underlying technologies now allow large-scale animations. The users do not just display and inspect static visualizations; they now view animated sequences of visualization and navigate through visualized spaces. In a limiting case, user surrounded by wall-sized displays, viewed through depth-enhancing goggles, perceptually immersed in their data.
About twenty years ago, sound in the user interface meant warning beeps only. The sound got attention in circumstances where flashing text boxes sometimes did not. During the 1980s, HCI incorporated a number of non-speech sounds into the user interface and made progress enhancing the quality of synthetic speech and applying in the telephone-based information system. More recently, advances in speech recognition and natural language processing and in underlying hardware and software technologies, have allowed remarkable progress in speech input and particularly in dictation applications (Jacko & Stephanidis, 2003).
3.1.1. Multiple Chip Module (MCM)
The Multiple Chip Module (MCM) is the heart of the Book. It contains all the processor units, Cache Memory, Clock, coherency control circuitry as well as Memory Storage controller. All PUs except one can be used as characterized for the particular use or can operate as uncharacterized. Each MCM has one PU which is always used as System Assistance Processor. No PU is reserved as spare (White, Injey, Chambers, Gasparovic, Hamid, Hatfield, Hewitt, Jorna & Kappler, 2007).
3.1.2. Processor Units (PU)
The Processing Unit (PU) in System z9 architecture is the unit responsible for executing instructions. Each PU is a super-scalar processor which able to execute three instruction per cycle. Each PU also has two Level 1 caches of 256kB each for instructions and data. Each cache is a four-way set associative and has a 512 entry capacity Translation Lookaside Buffer. There is also a secondary TLB with 512 entries at the first virtual memory segment level which is 16-way set associative. A four way set associative branch history table, with capacity of 8K entries also enhances the address translation function.
3.1.3. PU Characterizations
The internal Mainframe functions of the Mainframe, characterize the PUs into a number of types during the Power-on reset function. These characterizations are:
Central Processor (CP): The standard processor characterization for use with an operating system or with applications.
Internal Coupling Facility Processor (ICF), which characterize a processor for Internal Coupling Facility.
Integrated Facilities for Linux: dedicated processor for with use with Linux and for z/VM processing done to support Linux.
System Assistance Processor (SAP): Characterize a CPU for increasing I/O capacity of the Mainframe.
System z Application Assist Processor (zAAP): Special characterization of a processor used for executing JVM functions only.
System z9 Integrated Information Processor (zIIP): characterizes a processor for specialized function. Once characterized, zIIP processor cannot be used for general z/OS work.