Essay: Security, Intelligence and Policy

Essay: Security, Intelligence and Policy
April 12, 2011 Comments Off on Essay: Security, Intelligence and Policy Academic Papers on Information Technology,Sample Academic Papers admin

Sample Essay

The modern concept of policing or “maintenance of law and order” originated in the eighteen century. The socio-economic develops that happened in that era made it necessary for societies to develop law and organization which would enforce it.  The theory of policing has since gone through a series of changes in order to adapt to the advancement of society as well as the change in nature and patterns of crimes (Grieve, Harfield and MacVean 2007). In the recent years, the theory of policing has experienced two major developments.  One of these developments has been a new set of ideas which has been gaining importance recently.

These ideas find their roots in the “concept of information” that comprises of interpretation, extraction of knowledge as well as techniques used to for extraction (Williamson 2008).

This has also led to the development of point of view from which the police is viewed as knowledge workers (Ericson and Haggerty 1997). The other development, which has yet to have its full influence, is the idea of a network that has been introduced to highlight the fact that policing actually involves a number of participants (Johnston and Shearing 2003). These developments are not restricted to policing but also reflect changes in the social theory, for example, the concern about the “knowledge society” and “network society”. These changes in the theory of policing have also led to the alteration of policing practices, giving rise to a new methodology of policing in which the knowledge about crime, its causes, and other related information is given more importance (Williamson 2008). The knowledge-based policing has found acceptance among the policing organization because of the manufactured risk in the society. The manufactured risks are those which are market by the high level of involvement of human agency in both producing and mitigation of risks. Hence, in the literature, it has been argued that for all manufactured risks, it is possible for societies to assess the level of risk which is being produced and hence activities can be planned to mitigate them (Giddens 1999). This concept is applied in knowledge-based policing as gathering intelligence about offenders and other criminals to gauge the level of threat posed by them and hence taking preventive action to mitigate any crime (Ericson and Haggerty 1997).

The ideology that comprises of ideas based on knowledge and networks was integrated with the “theory of policing sociology” without the consideration of how they would be utilized. Following these concepts is the concept that considers the police as”knowledge workers” which is also used regularly in policing practice nowadays (Williamson 2008).  According to Peter Drucker, there are five important features that make up the concepts of knowledge and knowledge workers. A knowledge worker is able to gain access to jobs as well as a position in society with the help of formal education. However, this reveals a paradox in Ericson and Haggerty’s work because when considering contemporary police, a large number of police organizations lack the requirement of having a proper degree in order to recruit and train new employees. Peter also specifies that knowledge is only contained in its practice within a knowledge society The knowledge in the application is only effective when it is highly specialized. In other words, the core workforce of a knowledge society consists of a large number of highly specialized people (Drucker 1995).

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