How can the ZigBee standard be employed for Industrial purposes

How can the ZigBee standard be employed for Industrial purposes
April 14, 2011 Comments Off on How can the ZigBee standard be employed for Industrial purposes Academic Papers on Information Technology,Sample Academic Papers admin

6. Literature Review

ZigBee is a set of communication protocol that has been defined for low-rate communication in a short-range wireless networked environment. The ZigBee standard has bee developed by the ZigBee Alliance, which is a consortium of hundred of equipment manufacturers, semiconductor chip designers as well as software developers. ZigBee Alliance was formed in 2002 as a not-for-profit organization, open for anyone who wants to join (ZigBee Alliance 2009) The ZigBee Alliance adopter IEEE 802.15.4 standard as its Physical Layer (PHY) and Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols, thereby making ZigBee compatible with IEE 802.15.4 (Legg 2004).

ZigBee-based wireless devices operate in 868 MHz, 915 MHz as well as 2.4 GHz frequency bands. ZigBee supports a maximum of 250 Kilobits per second of data transfer rate, however, is targeted mainly at the market of battery powered applications for which longer battery life and low cost is much more important then the data rate (Daintree 2008). The ZigBee standard has been designed in such a way that the total time spent in the activities is very less. Hence, a ZigBee device spends most of its time in sleep mode to save its power. This enables the device to extend its operational life to several years before a need of battery change arises (Gang, Krishnamachari and Raghavendra 2004).

The concept of using wireless communication technology to collect data or execute certain tasks in an environment such as a factory or a house is actually not recently. Work has been done in this regards for several years and the use of several standards such IEEE 802.11 (WLAN) standard and Bluetooth has been investigated. Each of these standard has been developed for a particular application, hence, has its advantages and disadvantages when applied to difference scenarios of information collection and task execution. The ZigBee standard, however, has been specially developed by keeping in mind the needs of situations where devices with very low power consumption along with cheap implementation cost and low data rate are required. The ZigBee standard reduces the implementation cost by simplifying the architecture of the communication protocol and reducing the data rate (Farahani 2008). The minimum requirements which are needed to meet ZigBee (and therefore 802.15.4) specifications are not very stringent as compared to other short range communication protocol such as IEEE 802.11. This greatly lower the implementation cost as well as the complexity of the ZigBee devices. Furthermore, the duty cycle, which is the ratio of time a device has been active of the total time, for ZigBee devices has been very low. In many of the ZigBee transceivers, the duty cycle is less than 1% in order to ensure extremely long battery life (Labiod, Afifi and Santis 2007).

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